Accounting

 

 

Which of the following is an advantage of corporations relative to partnerships and sole proprietorships?

Lower taxes.

 

Most common form of organization.

 

Reduced legal liability for investors.

 

Harder to transfer ownership.

 

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The group of users of accounting information charged with achieving the goals of the business is its

managers.

 

auditors.

 

creditors.

 

investors.

 

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Which of the following financial statements is concerned with the company at a point in time?

 

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Income statement.

 

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Balance sheet.

 

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Retained Earnings statement.

 

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Statement of cash flows.

An income statement

 

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reports the assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity at a specific date.

 

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presents the revenues and expenses for a specific period of time.

 

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summarizes the changes in retained earnings for a specific period of time.

 

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reports the changes in assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity over a period of time.

The most important information needed to determine if companies can pay their current obligations is the

 

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relationship between short-term and long-term liabilities.

 

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relationship between current assets and current liabilities.

 

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net income for this year.

 

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projected net income for next year.

 
     

A liquidity ratio measures the

 

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short-term ability of a company to pay its maturing obligations and to meet unexpected needs for cash.

 

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ability of a company to survive over a long period of time.

 

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percentage of total financing provided by creditors.

 

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income or operating success of a company over a period of time.

 

 

The convention of consistency refers to consistent use of accounting principles

 

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throughout the accounting periods.

 

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among firms.

 

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among accounting periods.

 

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within industries.

 
     

Horizontal analysis is also known as

 

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common size analysis.

 

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linear analysis.

 

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vertical analysis.

 

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trend analysis.

 
 

 

       

Horizontal analysis is a technique for evaluating a series of financial statement data over a period of time

 

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to determine which items are in error.

 

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to determine the amount and/or percentage increase or decrease that has taken place.

 

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that has been arranged from the highest number to the lowest number.

 

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that has been arranged from the lowest number to the highest number.

 

 

Vertical analysis is a technique that expresses each item in a financial statement

 

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as a percent of the item in the previous year.

 

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as a percent of a base amount.

 

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starting with the highest value down to the lowest value.

 

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in dollars and cents.

Process costing is used when

 

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dissimilar products are involved.

 

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costs are to be assigned to specific jobs.

 

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production is aimed at filling a specific customer order.

 

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the production process is continuous.

An important feature of a job order cost system is that each job

 

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must be similar to previous jobs completed.

 

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has its own distinguishing characteristics.

 

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must be completed before a new job is accepted.

 

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consists of one unit of output.

In a process cost system, product costs are summarized:

 

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on production cost reports.

 

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on job cost sheets.

 

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after each unit is produced.

 

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when the products are sold.

 
     

An activity that has a direct cause-effect relationship with the resources consumed is a(n)

 

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cost driver.

 

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overhead rate.

 

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cost pool.

 

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product activity.

 
     

Activity-based costing

 

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allocates overhead directly to products and services based on activity levels.

 

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allocates overhead to multiple activity cost pools, and it then assigns the activity cost pools to products and services by means of cost drivers.

 

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accumulates overhead in one cost pool, then assigns the overhead to products and services by means of a cost driver.

 

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assigns activity cost pools to products and services, then allocates overhead back to the activity cost pools.

A cost which remains constant per unit at various levels of activity is a

 

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manufacturing cost.

 

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fixed cost.

 

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variable cost.

 

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mixed cost.

 
     

The break-even point is where

 

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total sales equal total fixed costs.

 

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total sales equal total variable costs.

 

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total variable costs equal total fixed costs.

 

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contribution margin equals total fixed costs.

Fixed costs are $600,000 and the contribution margin per unit is $150. What is the break-even point?

 

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4,000 units

 

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1,500 units

 

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$4,000,000

 

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$1,500,000

 
     


 

When a company assigns the costs of direct materials, direct labor, and both variable and fixed manufacturing overhead to products, that company is using

 

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absorption costing.

 

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product costing.

 

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operations costing.

 

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variable costing.

 

 

       

If a division manager’s compensation is based upon the division’s net income, the manager may decide to meet the net income targets by increasing production when using

 

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absorption costing, in order to decrease net income.

 

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absorption costing, in order to increase net income.

 

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variable costing, in order to increase net income.

 

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variable costing, in order to decrease net income.

An unrealistic budget is more likely to result when it

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has been developed in a bottom up fashion.

 

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has been developed in a top down fashion.

 

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is developed with performance appraisal usages in mind.

 

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has been developed by all levels of management.

A major element in budgetary control is

 

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the preparation of long-term plans.

 

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the comparison of actual results with planned objectives.

 

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approval of the budget by the stockholders.

 

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the valuation of inventories.

 

 

       

The purpose of the sales budget report is to

 

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control selling expenses.

 

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determine whether income objectives are being met.

 

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determine whether sales goals ar
e being met.

 

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control sales commissions.

The accumulation of accounting data on the basis of the individual manager who has the authority to make day-to-day decisions about activities in an area is called

 

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master budgeting.

 

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static reporting.

 

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flexible accounting.

 

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responsibility accounting.

Variance reports are

 

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(a) external financial reports.

 

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(b) SEC financial reports.

 

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(c) internal reports for management.

 

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(d) all of these.

Internal reports that review the actual impact of decisions are prepared by

 

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factory workers.

 

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management accountants.

 

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department heads.

 

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the controller.

The process of evaluating financial data that change under alternative courses of action is called

 

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contribution margin analysis.

 

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incremental analysis.

 

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double entry analysis.

 

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cost-benefit analysis.

Seasons Manufacturing manufactures a product with a unit variable cost of $100 and a unit sales price of $176. Fixed manufacturing costs were $480,000 when 10,000 units were produced and sold. The company has a one-time opportunity to sell an additional 1,000 units at $140 each in a foreign market which would not affect its present sales. If the company has sufficient capacity to produce the additional units, acceptance of the special order would affect net income as follows:

 

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Income would increase by $8,000.

 

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Income would decrease by $8,000.

 

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Income would increase by $140,000.

 

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Income would increase by $40,000.

Carter, Inc. can make 100 units of a necessary component part with the following costs:

Direct Materials

$120,000

Direct Labor

20,000

Variable Overhead

60,000

Fixed Overhead

40,000

If Carter can purchase the component externally for $220,000 and only $10,000 of the fixed costs can be avoided, what is the correct make-or-buy decision?

 

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Buy and save $10,000

 

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Make and save $10,000

 

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Make and save $30,000

 

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Buy and save $30,000

A company has a process that results in 15,000 pounds of Product A that can be sold for $16 per pound. An alternative would be to process Product A further at a cost of $200,000 and then sell it for $28 per pound. Should management sell Product A now or should Product A be processed further and then sold? What is the effect of the action?

 

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Sell now, the company will be better off by $20,000.

 

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Process further, the company will be better off by $20,000.

 

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Process further, the company will be better off by $180,000.

 

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Sell now, the company will be better off by $200,000.

 

 

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